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The political geography through historical periods
Author: Translator: Bich Thuy .Posted date: 06/01/2015 .Views: 1249 lượt. [Print]
According to “Dai Nam Nhat Thong Chi” (Intergrated Notes on the Great Viet Nam) by National History of the Nguyen Dynasty, the ancient Dien Ban land belonged to the Viet Thuong Thi land of Hung Kings. However, the Chinese feudal had invaded and dominated Viet Nam, Dien Ban (Quang Nam) had the same fate.

         In the year 111 BC, the Han Dynasty replaced the Trieu Dynasty to dominate our country. Beside Giao Chi district and Cuu Chan district, the Han dynasty also established Nhat Nam district (the land from Hoanh Son to Quang Nam today)

          Nhat Nam consisted of 5 districts sach as Tay Quyen, Chu Ngo, Ty Canh, Le Dung and Tuong Lam. The Dien Ban land today was located in the area of Tuong Lam district at that time.

          Under the domination of the Chinese feudal, Nhat Nam people including Tuong Lam had revolted against the Chinese feudal. By the year 192 (the King Hieu De of the Dong Han dynasty) Under the leading of Khu Lien, Tuong Lam people together with Nhat Nam people had killed the district chief and had achieved independence and self-determination. A new nation had established two sides of Hai Van mountain pass.

         Chinese history called this nation Lam Ap. Tuong Lam district (including Dien Ban – Quang Nam today) had been the territory of Lam Ap. After many centuries existing nonstop conflicts with feudal in the North, at last Lam Ap and Champa in the South had merged together into a nation - Chiem Thanh. So Dien Ban – Quang Nam had become territory of Chiem Thanh at that time.

          Don't clearly define when Chiem Thanh had been established . In Chinese history documents, the name Champa under name Chiem Thanh (urban of Champa)  had been only known from middle of the 16th century (3-52). Cham people called Dien Ban Amaravati. At that time Dien Ban - Quang Nam was territory of Chiem Thanh. Before merged to Dai Viet Nation, Cham people, who had lived in Amaravati, mainly employed in agriculture, they had plowed by buffaloes or oxen, they had known how to work two crops season, how to harness hydraulic and how to build irrigation systems. They also had planted mulberry trees, raised silkworms, weaved fabric by a cotton weft. Cham people in Amaravati had built many architectures. There are many vestiges of Cham architectures in Dien Ban today. Especially, Bang An tower is one of Cham vestiges, it has very special architecture, which is considered unique among the remaining Cham temples.

          French researcher H. Parmentier realized strange architecture of Bang An Tower in the Champa architecture history in the beginning years of the 20th century. Among the remaining Cham Temples, Bang An tower has the octagonal unique shape. From the outside, it looks a colossal bamboo shoot (over 20m high) not a square tower as other towers of Champa (3-168).

          People and army of Dai Viet twice bore down invaders Nguyen Mong in 1285 and 1288 under the time of King Tran Nhan Tong and the time of king Tran Quoc Tuan. The Nguyen Mong army had invaded Champa before they invaded Dai Viet. The Tran dynasty supported army and warships for Champa to against common enemy. Thanks to alliance fighting with enemy Nguyen – Mong, in 1931 when abdicating in favour of son, Emperor Tran Nhan Tong had a long time visiting Champa and had promised to marry off his daughter Princess Huyen Tran to King Champa – Che Man.

          In 1305, by order of King Che Man, Che Bo Dao and more than 100 hundred of people brought Engagement gift as gold, silver,  aromatic spices and stranger material to Thang Long Capital. But the courtier of Tran Dynasty wasn’t satisfied with that. King Che Man  offered two lands is Châu Ô and Châu Rí (South of Quang Tri and Thua Thien) to as betrothal gifts. However, the Tran dynasty demanded King Chiem recognizing the boundary of Dai Viet not only in Hai Van but also extended into the North of Thu Bon River (including Da nang, Dien Ban, Dai Loc nowaday).

          Dien Ban merged into the map of Dai Viet territory since Huyen Tran had took leave of Thang Long  and had become the wife of Che Man in 1306

          From Quang Tri to the north of Thu Bon river, the Tran Dynasty had established two land areas: Chau Thuan and Chau Hoa. Chau Hoa had Thua Thien, Da nang and the north of Quang Nam. From the Tran dynasty, Dien Ban had been in Dai Viet land.

          In June of Tan Mao year, King Le Thanh Tong occupied Chiem Dong, Co Luy and the part of new land  extending to Thach Bi mountain, and established Thua Tuyen Quang Nam. The appellation of Quang Nam has been from then. However, Dien Ban , Dai Loc, Hoa Vang at that time were the regions of Trieu Phong  Prefecture in Thua Tuyen Thuan Hoa. In 1520, King Le Chieu Tong changed the name of Quang Nam Thưa Tuyen to Quang Nam Tran. In 1570, by order of King Lê, Nguyen Hoang had come to Quang Nam for holding this land. With his talent and virtue, Nguyen Hoang fastly had stabilized Thuan Quang land and people "live and work in peace and contentment". In 1602, Thua tuyen Quang Nam changed into Quang Nam Dinh and in this year, Lord Nguyen Hoang had gone on an inspection tour at Hai Van. He said that this area is the “throat of the Thuận - Quảng region”. Since then, he established a palace in Cần Húc commune (Duy Xuyên). According to “Dai Nam Thuc Luc Tien Bien” of The national historiographer's office of the Nguyen dynasty: on July of Nham Dan year (1602), Nguyen Hoang established Thanh Chiem Town in Cần Húc commune.

          In the book “Quang Nam through periods”, basing on the surveys of Pham Dinh Khiem, Phan Du said: “In fact, Can Huc Commune was Thanh Chiem hamlet of Vinh Tho Commune, Dien Ban District, near 1A Nation road, about 5 km way from Cau Lau bridge (Thu Bon river) to Dien Ban county seat".

          With establishing Thanh Chiem Town, the position of Dien Ban has raised in the history process of establishing country of nation.

        In 1604, Lord Tien Nguyen Hoang promoted Dien Ban from a district belonged to Trieu Phong prefect to Dien Ban prefect. New Dien Ban prefect had five districts such as Tan Phuoc, An Nong, Hoa Vinh, Dien Khanh, Phuoc Chau.  Quang Nam Dinh had four districts such as: Dien Ban, Thang Hoa (Quang Nam land today), Tư Nghĩa (Quang Ngai today), Hoai Nhơn (Binh Dinh today).

          At the beginning of the 20th century, after defeating Tay Son, King Gia Long established new provine, Quang nam Provine included two prefects Dien Ban and Thang Hoa. Dien Ban prefect included Hoa Vang and Dien Khanh. Dien Ban today was Dien Khanh. At that time, Dien Khanh district had 7 cantons, and 221 villages. In the 13th year of Ming Mang (1822), name Dien Khanh was change into Dien Phuoc

          Under the Nguyen Dynasty, Dien Ban was the integral territory of Quang Nam. In 1834, Quang Nam citadel was built in La Quang village (Vinh Dien today).

          At the end of the 20th century, Dien Ban prefect, which included 9 cantons, 168 communes, was an administrative unit of Quang Nam.

          At that time, Dien Ban was Dien Ban district today and it consisted of Duy Xuyen and Dai Loc. At the beginning of the 20th century, Duy Xuyen and Dai Loc separated into separate administrative units. About 1920, Quang Nam province had 7 administrative units: three prefects (Dien Ban, Thang Binh, Tam Ky) and had four districts (Duy Xuyen, Dai Loc, Que Son and Hoa Vang).

          In the anti-American resistance war, from 31-7-1962, Saigon puppet government divided into two provinces of Quang Nam: Quang Nam and Quang Tin. At that time, Dien Ban was an administrative unit of Quang Nam province (Dien Ban urban district). But in the revolutionary government, Dien Ban upon a time belonged to Quang Da.

          After the complete liberation of the south(30-4-1945), Quang Nam had called Quang Nam – Đa Nang province including Da Nang city, Tam Ky town, Hoi An town and 14 districts. Dien ban was one of 14 district of Quang Nam Da Nang. Since Da Nang separated from Quang Nam, Dien Ban has been a district of Quang Nam province.

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